- Technical Blog From My Notebook

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Types of Dairies|Dairy Engineering|Technical Superintendent milma|Technical Superintendant Milk Marketing Federation Limited

 Types of Dairies|Dairy Engineering|Technical Superintendent milma|Techynical Superintendant Milk Marketing Federation Limited

Kerala PSC is conducting Exam of Technical Superintendent Milk Marketing Federation Limited(MILMA). The Milma Technical Superintendent Exam will be on 19 February 2020. All candidates need to give the confirmation before December 12. The study materials of technical superintendent Milma can be got from eee.bibimohanan.com , www.eeemadeeasy.com and video classes will be available in the YouTube Channel EEE Made Easy. You can follow EEE Made Easy Telegram channel to get updates of the exam for the post of Technical Superintendent Milk Marketing Federation Limited.

Types of Dairies and Perishable nature of milk


Since India is the leading country in milk production in the world at a fast rate, it has been lead to a need for very scientific layout and planning for the dairies being set up by the dairy designers, engineers, and architects.

 In some organized sectors, milk collection and chilling of milk are done, before it is transported for processing at the dairy factory. 

The dairy technology commences with the processing milk at the dairy plants for market milk and various dairy products. 

Dairy plant layout and design

The dairy plant layout and design means designing a layout plan for dairy plant. i.e layout of various sections in dairy building, equipment layout, laying of dairy machines in each section for economical and efficient movement of men and material in the plant.

Milk and milk products, however, impose certain requirements that do not occur elsewhere in food or other industries. 

These special requirements affect the structure and the layout of the building, the provision and distribution of services and the choice of site. 

The products of the dairy industry – milk for liquid consumption,
yoghurt, curd, cream, butter, ghee, and similar products, cheese, milk powder and so on- are foods which play a fundamental part in human nutrition.

 Materials and methods used in the building must be such as to give the longest practical life with the minimum of maintenance, in spite of working conditions which are often relatively severe from both the mechanical and chemical point of view. 

It should also be seen that most of the repairs, alterations or extensions could be done without stopping the production. These characteristics demand the closest attention during planning.

There is a need for the highest standard of hygiene. Milk is the most suitable medium for the growth of microorganism, therefore every possible measure should be taken to reduce the possibility of contamination, especially after processing.

 Good layout design and use of proper materials and techniques make a great contribution to hygiene. The dairy layout needs careful thought and planning keeping in view the manufacture of the products and their commercial aspects.

 Perishable nature of milk

Milk by its nature is perishable. The following three factors contribute to its being perishable:

(i) Contamination with bacteria due to widely dispersed and unhygienic collection methods

(ii) Warm temperatures of tropical climate

(iii) The prolonged time before cooling or processing

In practice, none of these factors can be eliminated completely, so if anyone is accentuated, the life of milk will decrease. 

Therefore, every effort must be made to minimize these factors on the farm, during the collection at milk plant and during distribution to consumers.

 At the farm, the aim must be to cool milk as soon as possible after
milking. Ideally, the milk should be chilled to 4 ̊C within two hours after milking. If for any reason this can not be done at the farm, quick transport of milk to the plant is essential. 

If milk can be stored conveniently at the farm or local collecting depot at low temperature, the organization of transport to the milk processing plant is simplified to a greater extent by transporting bulk quantity in insulated tankers. 

The type, size, and a number of vehicles necessary are, therefore determined not only by the usual factors such as distance or nature of roads but also by the condition of milk production.

When the milk is drawn from the udder of the milch animals (cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, etc.), the quality of milk is almost sterile. 

The milk has its own antimicrobial system present which is active till 2 to 3 hours of milking. 

The components in milk such as the lactoperoxidase system, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, etc. have the antimicrobial effect. 

The perishable nature of milk comes into the picture with the contamination from air, human, and milking utensils. The temperature of milk during milking is equal to body temperature i.e., 37°C. 

The milk is very rich in nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and water becomes good media for the growth of micro-organisms. 

So the milk should be immediately sent to the dairies within 2 or 3
hours of milking, before it gets sour. 

If the dairy is very far away from the milk collection area, it should be chilled to below 10°C in the bulk milk coolers at the farm level (village co-operatives and/or chilling centers) so that the microbial activity is inactivated.


Also vist www.eeemadeeasy.com for for Study materials

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