- Technical Blog From My Notebook

Sunday, January 17, 2016

Synchronous Machines


1 Introduction
With the development of the technology and the way in which human labour is get-ting minimized and the comforts increasing tremendously the use of electrical energy is ever increasing. Basically electric power is the main source of energy for carrying out many func-tions, as it is a clean and efficient energy source, which can be easily transmitted over long distances. With the availability of Transformer for changing the voltage levels to a very high value (of say 132kV to 400kV) the use of AC power has increased rapidly and the DC power is used only at remote places where AC power cannot be supplied through power lines or cables or for a few social purposes. A synchronous generator is an electrical machine producing alternating emf (Elec- tromotive force or voltage) of constant frequency. In our country the standard commercial frequency of AC supply is 50 Hz. In U.S.A. and a few other countries the frequency is 60 Hz. The AC voltages generated may be single phase or 3-phase depending on the power supplied. For low power applications single phase generators are preferable. The basic prin- ciples involved in the production of emf and the constructional details of the generators are discussed below.

1.1 Generation of emf

In 1831 Faraday discovered that an emf can be induced (or generated) due to relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor of electricity. This voltage was termed as the induced emf since the emf is produced only due to motion between the conductor and the magnetic field without actual physical contact between them. The principle of electromagnetic induction is best understood by referring to Fig. 1. The magnetic field is produced by the two fixed poles one being the north pole from which the magnetic flux lines emerge and enter into the other pole known as the south pole. It was found that the magnitude of the voltage induced in the conductor is proportional to the rate of change of flux lines linking the conductor.

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