- Technical Blog From My Notebook

Thursday, December 3, 2015

Picture and Sound transmission in TV- part 1

Picture transmission
The picture information is optical in character and may be thought of as an assemblage of a large number of bright and dark areas representing picture details. These elementary areas into which the picture details may be broken up are known as ‘picture elements’, which when viewed together, represent the visual information of the scene. At any instant there are almost an infinite number of pieces of information, existing simultaneously, each representing the level of brightness of the scene to the reproduced. In other words the information is a function of two variables, time and space. Ideally then, it would need an infinite number of channels to transmit optical information corresponding to all the picture elements simultaneously. So a method known as scanning is used instead.
In the scanning process, the conversion of optical information to electrical form and its transmission are carried out element by element, one at a time and in a sequential manner to cover the entire scene which is to be televised. Scanning of the elements is done at a very fast rate and this process is repeated a large number of times per second to create an illusion of simultaneous pick-up and transmission of picture details.
A TV camera, the heart of which is a camera tube, is used to convert the optical
Information into a corresponding electrical signal,the amplitude of which varies in accordance with the variations of brightness.


The above Fig.  Shows very elementary details of one type of Camera tube (vidicon) to illustrate this principle. An optical image of the scene to be transmitted is focused by a lens assembly on the rectangular glass face-plate of the camera tube. The inner side of the glass face-plate has a transparent conductive coating on which is laid a very thin layer of photoconductive material. The photolayer has a very high resistance when no light falls on it, but decreases depending on the intensity of light falling on it. Thus depending on the light intensity variations in the focused optical image, the conductivity of each element of the photolayer changes accordingly. An electron beam is used to pick-up the picture information
now available on the target plate in terms of varying resistance at each point. The beam is
formed by an electron gun in the TV camera tube. On its way to the inner side of the glass faceplate ,it is deflected by a pair of deflecting coils mounted on the glass envelope and kept mutually perpendicular to each other to achieve scanning of the entire target area.
Scanning is done in the same way as one reads a written page to cover all the words in one line and all the lines on the page (see Fig). To achieve this, the deflecting coils are fed separately from two sweep oscillators which continuously generate saw-tooth waveforms, each operating at a different desired frequency. The magnetic deflection caused by the current in one coil gives horizontal motion to the beam from left to right at a uniform rate and then brings it quickly to the left side to commence the trace of next line. The other coil is used to deflect the beam from top to bottom at a uniform rate and for its quick retrace back to the top of the plate to start this process all over again.
Two simultaneous motions are thus given to the beam, one from left to right across the target plate and the other from top to bottom thereby covering the entire area on which the electrical image of the picture is available. As the beam moves from element to
element, it encounters a different resistance across the target-plate, depending on the resistance of the photoconductive coating. The result is a flow of current which varies in magnitude as the elements are scanned. This current passes through a load resistance RL, connected to the conductive coating on one side and to a dc supply source on the other. Depending on the magnitude of the current a varying voltage appears across the resistance RL and this corresponds to the optical information of the picture.
The electrical information obtained from the TV camera tube is generally referred to as video signal (video is Latin for ‘see’). This signal is amplified and then amplitude modulated with the channel picture carrier frequency. The modulated output is fed to the transmitter antenna for radiation along with the sound signal.


Sound transmission
The microphone converts the sound associated with the picture being televised into
proportionate electrical signal, which is normally a voltage. This electrical output, regardlessis a single valued function of time and so needs a single channel for its transmission. The audio signal from the microphone after amplification is frequency modulated, employing the assigned carrier frequency.

In FM, the amplitude of the carrier signal is held constant, whereas its frequency is varied in accordance with amplitude variations of the modulating signal. As shown in the above  Fig, output of the sound FM transmitter is finally combined with the AM picture transmitter output, through a combining network, and fed to a common antenna for radiation of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves.

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